The Big List Specialist Jargon Organizations

Glossary » N O

N
(Acronym) Number. In research indicates the number of respondents in a sample or sub-sample.
NA
(Acronym) Not Available or No Answer.
NAB
1. (Acronym) Newspaper Advertising Bureau: XXXXXXX
2. (Acronym) NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BROADCASTERS XXXXX 
Narrowcast Media
Media types intended to reach narrowly defined groups of people. To be differentiated from 'Broadcast Media' or 'Mass Media'. See also terms with 'Media'.
National
Generally, refers to products, services or media vehicles distributed in all areas of the country.
National Advertising
Advertising sourced from advertisers who distribute products or services nationwide. Most usually are levied a 'National Rate' in media vehicles that have rates for different types of advertisers. To be differentiated from 'Local Advertising'. See also terms with 'Advertising'.
National Rate
XXXXXXXX See also terms with 'Rate'.
Natural Break
Television term indicating a normal interruption in the continuity of programmes. Enables a 'Commercial Break' to be placed.
Navigation
Use of 'Hypertext' to move within or between web documents and other web resources on an 'Internet'.
Navigation Bar
Series of 'Hypertext Links' on a 'Web Page' arranged in a single line of text or graphics.
Needs
Products or resources essential for survival. See also 'Wants'.
Negative
1. Generally, photographic image in reverse tonal value to the original copy. Opposite of 'Positive'.
Nerd
80's term to describe an intelligent but socially inept person. Is often associated with Microsoft Corporation's Bill Gates. It has fallen out of favour, being somewhat replaced by 'Geek'.
Net
Generally, an amount clear of all deductions. To be differentiated from 'Gross'.
Net Audience
Number of individuals, households, etc., potentially exposed to a 'Media Vehicle' or 'Media Schedule' at least once using successive issues and/or broadcasts. Commonly termed 'Net Unduplicated Audience', 'Unduplicated Audience', 'Cumulative Audience', 'Cumulative Reach' or just 'Reach'. Sometimes termed 'Cumulative Coverage' or just 'Coverage'. To be differentiated from 'Gross Audience'. See also terms with 'Audience'.
Net Cost
Cost of a product or service that has all commissions, tax etc deducted or excluded. See also 'Net Rate'.
Net Paid Circulation
'Audit Bureau of Circulations of Southern Africa (ABC)' term for total circulation paid-for at levels no lower than 50% of the normal newsstand or subscription rates. See also terms with 'Circulation'.
Net Rate
Advertising rate that has 'Advertising Agency Commission' deducted or excluded. It is likely that discounts for volume, combinations, series, early payments and negotiated deals are also deducted. See also terms with 'Rate'.
Net Rating
XXXXXX
Net Reach
Total number of different individuals reached one or more times by a 'Media Schedule'. This is irrespective of the number of potential impacts on each individual provided by the schedule, and irrespective of the duplicated reach of the different media. Sometimes termed 'Net Cover'. See also terms with 'Reach'.
Net Unduplicated Audience
Number of individuals, households, etc., potentially exposed to a 'Media Vehicle' or 'Media Schedule' at least once using successive issues and/or broadcasts. Commonly termed 'Net Audience', 'Unduplicated Audience', 'Cumulative Audience', 'Cumulative Reach' or just 'Reach'. Sometimes termed 'Cumulative Coverage' or just 'Coverage'. To be differentiated from 'Gross Audience'. See also terms with 'Audience'.
Netiquette
Written and (mostly) unwritten rules of behaviour on the 'Internet'.
Netlag
Condition that occurs on the Internet when heavy traffic slows down server response time.
Netscape
1. Name of a company producing the well known 'Web Browser' 'Netscape Navigator'.
2. (Acronym) Netscape Navigator: a well known 'Web Browser'. A property of Netscape Corporation.
Netscape Navigator
Well known 'Web Browser'. A property of 'Netscape Corporation'. (Acronym) 'Netscape'.
Network
1. Television or radio stations linked together for transmitting identical programmes simultaneously. See also 'Syndicated Press Feature'.
2. Group of independent and non-competing advertising agencies or public relations consultancies that co-operate to service the same client/s or share ideas or resources. Most usually located in different cities or countries.
3. Connection of two or more computers so as to share resources.
Netzine
Digital magazine or newsletter, delivered by E-Mail or readable through the 'Internet'. Often sponsored. Sometimes termed 'e-Newsletter', 'e-Zine' & 'Zine'.
Newcomers
XXXXXXX
News
1. Generally, fresh information of recent events.
News Format
Content of a television or radio station that features news and news orientated programmes only. See also terms with 'Format'.
News, Hard
Current topical 'News' of a factual nature. Opposite of 'Soft News'.
News Release
Written statement issued to the news media describing events or situations considered by those releasing it to be of sufficient interest to be published or broadcast. Also termed 'Media Release'. Commonly termed 'Press Release' even if issued to non-press media. (Informal) 'Release'.
News, Soft
Editorial and feature articles which contain an element of 'News' but mainly express the opinion of the publication or contributors.
Newsclip
XXXXXXX
Newsgroup
Named discussion group on USENET, where users share news, comment and concerns. May or may not be part of the larger 'Internet'.
Newspaper
Publication that provides its readers with news of very recent events, usually carries advertising. Most often in 'Tabloid' or 'Broadsheet' formats and printed on poor quality paper. (Informal) Newspaper.
Newspaper Advertising Bureau (NAB)
XXXXX
Newspeak
Originally, language used by the media in George Orwell's novel 1984 to confuse and control the populace. Now refers to language and style employed by international and major local news media.
Newsprint Paper
Inexpensive, coarse paper suitable for printing newspapers. See also terms with 'Paper'.
Newsstand
Retail outlets such as newspaper street vendors, news agencies, supermarkets, hotels etc that sell newspapers and magazines.
Newsstand Circulation
Number of copies of each issue of a publication purchased at outlets such as newspaper street vendors, news agencies, supermarkets, hotels etc. See also terms with 'Circulation'.
Next to Editorial
Advertisement position on page next to editorial articles, stories or photographs. Where this position is specifically requested, a loading may be payable. Also termed 'Next to Matter', 'Next to Reading Matter' & 'Next to Text'. See also 'Facing Editorial'.
Next to Matter
Advertisement position on page next to editorial articles, stories or photographs. Where this position is specifically requested, a loading may be payable. Also termed 'Next to Editorial', 'Next to Reading Matter' & 'Next to Text'. See also 'Facing Matter (FM)'.
Next to Reading Matter
Advertisement position on page next to editorial articles, stories or photographs. Where this position is specifically requested, a loading may be payable. Also termed 'Next to Editorial', 'Next to Matter' & 'Next to Text'. See also 'Facing Reading Matter'.
Next to Text
Advertisement position on page next to editorial articles, stories or photographs. Where this position is specifically requested, a loading may be payable. Also termed 'Next to Editorial', 'Next to Matter' & 'Next to Reading Matter'. See also 'Facing Text'.
Ninety-Six Sheet
'Outdoor Advertising' unit measuring 3 metres deep by 12 metres wide. Equivalent to 96 'Double Crown' posters.
Nixie
Undeliverable piece of direct mail returned to the addressor.
Node
Any single computer connected to a network.
Non-Commercial Programme
Television or radio 'Programme' structured without commercials or sponsorships. To be differentiated from a 'Commercial Programme'.
Non-Response Rate
Percentage of 'Respondents' in a 'Research Study' who fail to respond to the entire 'Questionnaire' or any part of it.
Non-Structured Interview
Interview in which the respondent is encouraged to talk freely under direction from the interviewer. See also terms with 'Interview'.
Normal Distribution
Statistical term XXXXXXXXXX
Normal Frequency Curve
Statistical analysis in which the 'Mean', 'Mode' and 'Median' values are identical or very close together in the pattern of distribution of values. The curve is symmetrical, bell-shaped and the average ('Mean') lies at the top of the curve. See also 'Frequency Curve' & 'Dispersion'. 
Noting
Indicates a publication's reader recalls having seen at least part of an advertisement. An 'Aided Recall' technique. See also 'Noting Score' & 'Page Traffic Survey'.
Noting Score
Proportion of a publication's readers who recall having seen at least part of an advertisement. An 'Aided Recall' technique. See also 'Page Traffic Survey'.
Novelty
Cheap, often gimmicky, gift carrying an advertising message or logo. Typical examples are key rings and pens. Sometimes termed 'Advertising Novelty'.
NPU
(Acronym) Newspaper Press Union:
NPU Marketing Areas
Geographical areas defined by the 'Print Media South Africa (PMSA)' by which circulation and readership is analysed.
NRS
(Acronym) National Readership Survey:
Number Cruncher
Irreverent term given to media planner who considers quantitative aspects (ie., the numbers) without reference to the qualitative (ie., the values).
Number Crunching
Act of processing numbers and figures in media planning.
OAASA
(Acronym) Outdoor Advertising Association of South Africa: association representing individuals who work as an outdoor contractor or are associated with outdoor advertising.
OBC
(Acronym) Outside Back Cover: very last page of a magazine or journal, usually carries advertising. Usually shortened to Back Cover. (USA term) 4th Cover. Equivalent to a newspaper's 'Back Page'. See also terms with 'Cover'.
Objective
Broad aim or a desirable end, for example, to launch a brand. Separate objectives may be set for each marketing discipline. To be differentiated from 'Goal'.
Objective and Task Budget
Determining a 'Budget' by calculating the cost of meeting pre-set objectives. Also termed Object Budget', 'Task Budget' & 'Zero-Based Budget'. See also terms with 'Budget'.
Objective Budget
Determining a budget by calculating the cost of meeting pre-set objectives. Also termed Object and Task Budget', 'Task Budget' & 'Zero-Based Budget'. See also terms with 'Budget'.
OCR
(Acronym) Optical Character Recognition: process of scanning handwritten or typeset originals for further processing eg., sorting post or reading into a 'Word Processor'.
OFC
(Acronym) Outside Front Cover: first page of a magazine or journal, sometimes carries advertising. Usually shortened to Front Cover. (USA term) 1st Cover. Equivalent to a newspaper's 'Front Page'. See also terms with 'Cover'.
Off Air
1. (Informal) Off the Air: activity or material not broadcast, or to facilities not used for broadcasting. Opposite of 'On the Air'.
2. Broadcasting is in process.
Off Camera
Activity outside the image field of the television or cinema camera. Opposite of 'On Camera'. See also 'Off Mike'.
Off Camera Announcer
Television programme or cinema 'Announcer' who is heard but not seen. Also termed Off Screen Announcer'. Opposite of 'On Camera Announcer'.
Off Mike
Sound directed away from the microphone to give the effect of distance. Opposite of 'On Mike'. See also 'Off Camera' & 'Off Screen Announcer'.
Off-Pack Gift
'Gift' not attached to a brand's pack but dispensed at point-of-sale. See also terms with 'Gift' & 'Premium'.
Off-Peak Time
Television and radio airtime other than those at 'Peak' and 'Shoulder' periods. Usually offered at much lower rates.
Off Rate Card
Special rate not shown on a medium's published 'Rate Card'. Most usually negotiated. See also terms with 'Rate'.
Off Screen Announcer
Television programme or cinema 'Announcer' who is heard but not seen. Also termed Off Camera Announcer'.
Off the Air
1. Activity or material not broadcast, or to facilities not used for broadcasting. Opposite of 'On the Air'. (Informal) 'Off Air'.
2. Broadcasting is not in process.
Offer
XXXXXX
Offer, Blind
Offer contained in the body-copy of an advertisement for a booklet, a sample or information without the use of a coupon and without any typographical emphasis being placed on the offer. Often used to measure reader attention or response. Also termed 'Buried Offer' & 'Hidden Offer'.
Offer, Boxtop
Offer to the consumer of a gift, refund or premium in return for a boxtop or label from the packaging of a brand.
Offer, Buried
Offer contained in the body-copy of an advertisement for a booklet, a sample or information without the use of a coupon and without any typographical emphasis being placed on the offer. Often used to measure reader attention or response. Also termed 'Blind Offer' & 'Hidden Offer'.
Offer, Hidden
Offer contained in the body-copy of an advertisement for a booklet, a sample or information without the use of a coupon and without any typographical emphasis being placed on the offer. Often used to measure reader attention or response. Also termed 'Blind Offer' & 'Buried Offer'.
Offer, On-pack
Inviting purchasers to send-in for a free gift or special priced promotional offer, usually with evidence of minimum purchase.
Offer, Self-Liquidating
Offer for which the cost to the advertiser is paid by the consumer. Also termed 'Self-Liquidating Premium'.
Offline
Condition that occurs when a computer is unconnected to the Internet or other network. Opposite of 'Online'.
Offset
1. Any printing process in which the printing surface transfers the inked image to a rubber surfaced roller called a blanket which in turn transfers the ink to the paper. 'Offset-Lithography' is the most common form of Offset.
2. Faulty printing whereby wet ink is transferred from the face of one sheet to the back of another. Also termed 'Set-Off'.
3. (Informal but incorrect) 'Offset Lithography'.
Offset-Litho
(Informal) Offset-Lithography: printing process whereby a 'Lithography' plate's image is printed onto a rubber blanket for transferring (offset) to paper. See also 'Web Offset-Lithography'.
Offset-Lithography
Printing process whereby a 'Lithography' plate's image is printed onto a rubber blanket for transferring (offset) to paper. (Informal) 'Offset Litho'. See also 'Web Offset-Lithography'.
Omnibus Research
Research study sponsored by a number of marketers, each contributing to the research company's costs and profit in return for having questions included. See also terms with 'Research'.
On Air
1. (Informal) On the Air: activity or material broadcast, or facilities used for broadcasting. Opposite of 'Off the Air'.
2. Broadcasting is in process.
On Camera
Activity picked-up by the television or cinema camera. Opposite of 'Off Camera'. See also 'On Mike'.
On Camera Announcer
Television programme or cinema 'Announcer' who is heard and seen. Also termed On Screen Announcer'. Opposite of 'Off Camera Announcer'.
On Mike
Sound directed toward the microphone. Opposite of 'Off Mike'. See also 'On Camera' & 'On Screen Announcer'.
On the Air
1. Activity or material broadcast, or to facilities used for broadcasting. Opposite of 'Off the Air'. (Informal) 'On Air'.
2. Broadcasting is in process.
On-Pack Gift
'Gift' attached in some way to a brand's pack. See also terms with 'Gift' & 'Premium'.
On-Pack Offer
Inviting purchasers to send-in for a free gift or special priced promotional offer, usually with evidence of minimum purchase. See also terms with 'Offer'.
On Sale Date
Date a paid-for publication is available for sale to its reading public. Also termed 'Issue Date'. May or may not be the publication's 'Cover Date'. See also terms with 'Date'.
On Screen Announcer
Television programme or cinema 'Announcer' who is heard and seen. Also termed On Camera Announcer'. Opposite of 'Off Screen Announcer'.
Onionskin Paper
Thin, glazed translucent paper. See also terms with 'Paper'.
Online
Condition that occurs when a computer is connected to the Internet or other network. Opposite of 'Offline'.
Open-Ended Questionnaire
Research 'Questionnaire' in which the 'Respondent'/s answers are taken down verbatim, and for which no specific alternative answers are pre-coded. Opposite of Pre-coded Questionnaire'. See also terms with 'Questionnaire'. 
Opening Billboard
Introduction to television or radio programme. If sponsored may include a 'this programme is brought to you by ...' or similar message. May be matched by a 'Closing Billboard'.
Operating System (OS)
Underlying control program of a desktop computer that makes hardware run and supports the execution of all other applications. IBM's OS2 and Microsoft's DOS, Windows 3.1, 95, 98 and 2000 are Operating Systems.
Opacity
Degree by which paper will prevent 'Show Through' of printing on one side to the other.
OPI
(Acronym) Outside Printed Insert: preprinted advertisement leaflet of one or more pages carried loose or bound-in a publication. Also termed 'Pre-Printed Insert'. See also terms with 'Insert'.
Opinion Former
Person whose opinions, attitudes and activities influences others. Also termed 'Opinion Leader'.
Opinion Leader
Person whose opinions, attitudes and activities influences others. Also termed 'Opinion Formers'.
Opportunities to see (OTS)
Average numbers of exposures an audience has to potentially see a schedule.
Opportunity to Hear (OTH)
Average numbers of exposures an audience has to potentially hear a schedule.
Opportunities to View (OTV)
Average numbers of exposures an audience has to potentially view a schedule.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
Process of scanning handwritten or typeset originals for further processing eg., sorting post or reading into a 'Word Processor'.
Optical
Any special effect done with a camera or other equipment to the visual portion of a cinema or television commercial or programme.
Optimal Publication Life
See 'Issue Life'.
Optimisation
Process of adding elements eg., insertions in a medium in order to obtain the maximum return at each stage. Sometimes termed 'Hill Climbing'.
Original
1. Generally, the first of its type, not derived or copied from another source.
Orphan
Single word or part word on a line by itself at the end of a paragraph. Usually termed 'Widow'.
OS
(Acronym) Operating System: underlying control program of a desktop computer that makes hardware run and supports the execution of all other applications. IBM's OS2 and Microsoft's DOS, Windows 3.1, 95, 98 and 2000 are Operating Systems.
OTH
(Acronym) Opportunities to Hear: XXXXX
OTS
(Acronym) Opportunities to See: XXXXX
OTV
(Acronym) Opportunities to View: XXXXX
Out of Focus
Blurred form of definition of a photographic, video or film image. See also 'Focus' & 'In Focus'.
Out-of-Home
1. Pertains to events occurring outside of the home, eg., attending sports events.
Out of Register
Printing which appears blurred, caused by a printing plate which is not exactly in the proper position.
Out-Take
Film or video 'Shot' unused in the final commercial or programme. Some TV specials are comprised of Out-Takes with a comedy element.
Outdoor Advertising
Display advertising placed out-of-doors ie., along railways, roads or on roofs and walls of buildings or in public places such as hotels, taxis and trains. Also termed 'Out-of-Home'. See also 'Transportation Advertising'.
Outdoor Advertising Association of South Africa (OASA)
Association representing individuals who work as an outdoor contractor or are associated with outdoor advertising.
Output
Result of 'Computer' processing. Consists of printed information or a display on the 'Monitor'.
Outside Back Cover (OBC)
Very last page of a magazine or journal, usually carries advertising. (Informal) 'Back Cover'. (USA term) 4th Cover. Equivalent to a newspaper's 'Back Page'. See also terms with 'Cover'.
Outside Front Cover (OFC)
First page of a magazine or journal, sometimes carries advertising. (Informal) 'Front Cover'. (USA term) 1st Cover. Equivalent to a newspaper's 'Front Page'. See also terms with 'Cover'.
Outside Printed Insert (OPI)
Preprinted advertisement leaflet of one or more pages carried loose or bound-in a publication. Also termed 'Pre-Printed Insert'. See also terms with 'Insert'.
Over the Top
Exaggerated statement or over-acting.
Overprint
Superimpose additional printing onto already printed matter. Also termed 'Imprint'.
Overrun
Copies of printed matter in excess of the order or required for distribution. Often termed 'Overs'.
Overs
(Informal) Overrun: copies of printed matter in excess of the order or required for distribution.
Oxford Rule
Parallel lines, one thick and the other thin.
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